Assessing the current and future popularity of Chrome on Android

In developing websites, especially those like Ponzu/Kamishibai which make heavy use of Javascript and CSS3, it is extremely important to decide which browsers to support. Older browsers will tend to not support the features required to make advanced features on the website run, and so the decision has to be make whether to support that old browser at all.

In Ponzu/Kamishibai, we currently support the following platforms;

  1. Newer versions of Safari, Firefox and Chrome on desktop platforms. The decision to not support older versions is based on statistics that show that users of these browsers tend to update quickly to the newest version.
  2. Internet Explorer 10 on windows.
  3. Internet Explorer 8 and 9 are supported through browser-specific code modifications. More technically, we have separate CSS and Javascript files that are uses only on these platforms to make up for deficiencies. Hence testing tends to be less thorough compared to the more fully supported platforms. Supporting older versions of Internet Explorer is a necessary vice, due to the fact that Windows XP (which only supports up to Internet Explorer 8) is still prevalent, and that IT departments within corporations usually restrict updates.
  4. On iOS, we support the latest version only, with brief testing on older versions. This is due to statistics that show rapid adoption of newer versions of iOS. For example, iOS6 was found installed on 85% of devices after only 5 months. Furthermore, iOS6 can be installed on even the iPhone 3GS, a device released almost 4 years ago.
  5. On Android, we support the Android stock browser on Android version 2.3.6 and Android version 4.0. We also support the latest version of Chrome on Android.

Android fragmentation due to slow adoption of new OS versions

Android support is complicated due to two issues.

One is the fragmentation of the Android platform itself. This is well documented and data can be found on Google’s website. As of May 1, 2013, close to 40% of users are on “Gingerbread” (version 2.3.*), an OS version that was first introduced on December, 2010, and superseded by “Ice Cream Sandwich” (version 4.0) on October, 2011.

The Android stock browser is an integral part of Android and is updated together with the OS itself. Hence Android OS fragmentation directly corresponds to browser version fragmentation.

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Android fragmentation due to two different Google browsers

Android browser support is further complicated due to the fact that there exists two separate brands of browsers, both of which are developed by Google and both of which may be found as the default browser on even the newest versions of Android.

Up till Android version 4.0, the default browser on Android was always what is commonly referred to as the “stock Android browser”. However in June, 2012, Google released Chrome for Android. Since then, some but not all devices (e.g. Nexus 7) have Chrome as the default browser and do not have the “stock browser” installed.

Will Chrome become the new default browser for Android?

Because Chrome is developed by Google, the question is whether or not Chrome will be the default browser for Android. More practically, the real question is whether Chrome will become a significant proportion of the web audience.

Unfortunately, current statistics point to that not being the case in near future.

The below graph is taken from NetMarketShare which tracks global website usage. The graph is a breakdown of mobile browser usage on April 2013. Chrome usage (which is a combination of Chrome on Android and iOS) is 2.63% whereas Android Browser usage is 22.89%. If we make the assumption that Chrome usage is 100% Android, this calculates to 10.3% of Android users using Chrome. This compares to 28.4% of Android users on “Jelly Bean” (version 4.1.) and 27.5% on “Ice Cream Sandwich” (version 4.0.).

Chrome for Android cannot be run on versions lower that 4.0.*. The above numbers mean that 10.3 / (28.4 + 27.5) = 18.4% of “Chrome-capable” Android devices are running Chrome. If we restrict to “Jelly Bean”, the Android version from which Google removed the Android stock browser on Nexus devices, 36.2% are using Chrome at maximum (assuming that all Chrome users are on Jelly Bean, a rather unrealistic assumption).

These numbers suggest that Chrome for Android adoption is not particularly high, even among newer devices.

It does not look very likely that Chrome will become the number 1 browser on Android for at least a few more years.

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Non-Google branded smartphones do not use Chrome for the default

Whereas Google “Nexus” branded devices like the Nexus 7 come with Chrome as the default browser, and without the stock Android browser installed, the same is not true for devices from Samsung.

In this review for the recently introduced Galaxy S4, which comes with Android version 4.2, the default browser is mentioned to have Samsung-specific features which are not available for Chrome. Hence the stock Android browser is not only installed as the default, it has unique features which Samsung intends to use to differentiate from the competition.

It is therefore likely that Samsung has no plans to switch to Chrome as the default browser. Instead, Samsung will most likely add features to the stock Android browser to further differentiate itself. If Samsung were to switch to Chrome, that would mean the browsing experience would be almost identical to other smartphones. Poor differentiation means commoditization, and Samsung will fight hard to prevent that.

In fact, Chrome on Android is pretty badly implemented at this point, and using Chrome as the default browser is likely to worsen the user experience. As Google improves the Chrome code, this is likely to be less of an issue. However, there is a larger issue that will still stop Samsung from using Chrome aggressively.

Android is open-source, which Chrome is not

The comments in this article about Chrome for Android are mostly detailed and provide a lot of insight. Particularly interesting is the fact that while Android (including the browser) is open-source, Chrome is not. This is discussed in more detail here.

Hence for a manufacturer like Samsung, which has resources to modify Android to create a unique user experience, the Android stock browser is an obvious choice. They simply cannot customize Chrome. It is possible that Samsung will switch from the Android stock browser to their own browser based on webkit, but it is unlikely that they will move to Chrome. The same can be said of HTC and other major players.

For less capable manufacturers, they may chose Chrome, but they also might chose a third party which has a more capable browser or which will agree to customize.

Either way, the current situation is such that the first choice for the default browser has disappeared without anything to fill that gap. Chrome in the current licensing status will not fill in that gap, as Samsung will most likely not chose it. As a result, we might see extreme fragmentation in Android browsers.


Chrome is unlikely to become the dominant browser for Android in the near future. This is true even if we only consider new high-end phones since manufacturers seem reluctant to give up their own customized stock browser in favor of Chrome.

The result is likely to be that we will see even more fragmentation of Android browsers. The players will be customized stock Android browsers (from Samsung, HTC and larger manufacturers), Chrome, Amazon Silk and third party browsers (which will be endorsed by smaller manufacturers which cannot customize the stock browser themselves).

The situation is pretty grim for web developers which want to take advantage of cutting edge HTML5/CSS3 features on Android.

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