In Ponzu, our idea is to support all the digital communication devices that a significant number of participants are likely to own. This means that we will support 1) PCs, 2) smartphones, 3) feature phones, 4) tablets, 5) PDFs. That’s 5 different formats.
If we were to support smartphones and tablets through native applications rather than through the web, that would mean that we would have to add at least two more platforms, making the total number of formats into 7! Clearly, that is too much.
Furthermore, unlike normal IT development which is notorious for frequently missing deadlines, IT development for conferences must be on time. The time window is also very narrow since a large portion of the development cannot happen until the abstracts have been submitted by the users and the organizers have sifted through them.
Hence reducing total development effort is a very important part of Ponzu.
In the following, we will briefly describe what multi-device development is like in Ponzu, and how we manage to keep total development effort at manageable levels.
MVC architecture with Ruby-on-Rails
The MVC architecture for building web applications separates the Model (business logic) from the View (presentation). The effect is that you can use the exact same code for the Model, regardless of which device you are targeting. You will have to write View code for each device though.
This is a huge advantage for multi-device support. When we add another device, we don’t have to touch the Models. We simply modify the Controller and write a new View.
The most advanced MVC framework for web development is Ruby-on-Rails. We many of Ruby/Rails features to make multi-device support easier.
Writing new Views
Even though the overall page design is different between devices, a lot of the parts are very similar.
For example, code to generate the lists of authors and institutes in HTML is basically the same. We extract these into view helpers and use them in both for the PC website, the smartphone website and the feature phone website.
Code sharing can be done at a higher level as well. If you compare iPhone apps and iPad apps, you often notice that the iPad app is actually adding navigational elements around an iPhone app. In these cases, the iPad apps includes the iPhone app view as a fragment. Rails lets us do this easily with view partials.
Although still a work in progress, our goal is to share as much code between the views of our supported devices, while still providing a non-compromised, optimized design. Ruby-on-Rails helps us a lot here.
Modifying the Controllers
During the mid-phases of developing the MBSJ2012 system, we separated the controllers for all our devices. We had a controller for the PC website, smartphones and for feature phones.
Our concern was that the pages we wanted to provide might differ significantly between devices and we wanted to maintain flexibility. For example, PC websites typically pack a lot of information into a single page; the main content, navigational elements, related links, etc. These would be unnecessary for smartphone websites because there wouldn’t be enough space to display these.
However, rewriting both the Controller and the View for each supported device ended up being very frustrating. This is because while there are differences between devices in how we want to display the information, there was actually a significant amount of stuff that was the same. Because we had separate Controllers and therefore a different folder to contain the Views, comparing the code between devices was very time consuming and it was difficult to analyze to what extend we could DRY up the code. We often did copy & paste, simply because it was too much work to figure out the difference. We desperately needed a way to accommodate multiple devices into a single controller.
Our solution was to generate supplementary and superficial information in the View and not in the Controller. A common idea in MVC is to not let the View directly interact with the Model. That is the idea behind templating languages like Smarty (PHP). Our solution was to ignore this. In Ponzu, the View itself frequently has code that accesses the Model. This enables us to keep the Controller as device-independent as possible. As a side effect, it also makes fragment-caching much easier.
With this solution, we were able to unify the controllers for all our devices. The controllers manage interaction with the main Model for that page, authentication, selection of the appropriate View template for each device, expiration management of local cache, etc. They aren’t responsible for interacting with all the models required to draw a page because that depends on the device.
When we need to add support for another device, we simply add some code to specify which view template it will use. (i.e. Where the PC website uses the “index.html.erb” template, smartphones will typically access “index.s.html.erb” and feature phones will access “index.g.html.erb”. Sometimes though, smartphones will share “index.html.erb” with the PC site.) Other stuff is usually kept the same.
Only when we need to use advanced editing techniques will we call in libraries like jQuery and jQuery UI.
Ponzu is architected from very fundamental levels to optimize total development effort for multiple devices. The pillars for this are;
- Web-based with a central server holding all information. Clients are merely display terminals (with caching abilities).
- Exploit Ruby-on-Rails for it’s DRY capabilities.